Environmental Causes

Air Pollution

Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Birth Defects in Southern California

Vitamins [including Folic Acid]

Folic acid supplements and risk of facial clefts: Norwegian Study

Reduction in orofacial clefts following folic acid fortification of the U.S. grain supply

NIH – Moderate doses of vitamin A do not pose risk of birth defects.

Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake


Hazardous Waste

Birth Defects & Hazardous Waste Sites – US Study



Birth defects after maternal exposure to corticosteroids

:prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

Maternal corticosteroid use and risk of selected congenital anomalies


Asthma Inhalers

Inhaled Steroids Not Linked to Congenital Malformations


Antiepileptic Drugs

Epilepsy drugs may raise birth defect risk

Long term health and neurodevelopment in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs before birth


Stress (pre-birth)

Major Stressful Life Events & Birth Defects


Alcohol and Smoking

Alcohol consumption during early pregnancy may increase risk for cleft lip or palate

Tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy and risk of oral clefts.

Maternal alcohol use and risk of orofacial cleft birth defects

Significant link found between babies born with cleft lip or palate and mother’s smoking during pregnancy.

Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

Print pagePDF page

Comments are closed